Thursday, 27 December 2012

Object Pronouns


Object Pronouns
The seven basic pronouns have one form when they are used as subjects and another form when they are used as objects.
Subjects are what the sentence is about.
Objects are what is affected by the action of the subject.
  • I like whisky. (I is the subject).
  • I read books. (Books is the object as it is receiving the action).
PRONOUNS
Subject Pronoun
Object Pronoun
I
Me
You
You
He
Him
She
Her
It
It
We
Us
You (plural)
You
They
Them

Object pronouns are used instead of nouns, usually because we already know what the object is. It makes the sentence easier to read and understand and avoids repetition. We normally use object pronouns after a verb or a preposition.

Examples
I like horses.
Subject Pronoun
Horses don't like me.
Object Pronoun


We talk to our neighbour.
Subject Pronoun
She talks to us.
Object Pronoun


They listen to the teacher.
Subject Pronoun
Listen to me carefully.
Object Pronoun


You speak very quickly.
Subject Pronoun
We watch them on TV.
Object Pronoun

The Object Pronoun - it
Be careful when using 'it' as an object pronoun because it is only in the correct context that it has meaning. It needs to have already been mentioned or obvious to the listener what you are referring to. Compare;
  • You are sitting on it! (The listener probably doesn't know what the speaker refers to).
  • The letter is on the sofa. You are sitting on it! (It is obvious in the second sentence that the reference is to the letter)

Possessive Pronouns


Possessive Pronouns
Possessive pronouns are used in English to avoid repeating information that is already clear. In general it makes the sentence less confusing because the same information is not being repeated.
This book is my book, not your book. (Sounds repetitive)
This book is mine, not yours. (Mine and yours are possessive pronouns)
In the sentence, mine is a possessive pronoun that replaces my book.
In the sentence, yours is a possessive pronoun that replaces your book.
The possessive pronouns in English are as follows:
Subject
Possessive
Pronouns
I
Mine
You
Yours
He
His
She
Hers
It
Its
We
Ours
You (pl)
Yours
They
Theirs

Examples:
  • I didn't have my umbrella so Marta lent me hers.
    (I didn't have my umbrella so Marta lent me her umbrella).
  • Her car is faster than mine.
    (Her car is faster than my car).
  • That food is ours and not theirs.
    (That food is our food and not their food).
  • I know this drink is yours but I need to drink something.
    (I know this drink is your drink but I need to drink something).
Remember that with possessive pronouns there are no apostrophes (').

Of yours
It is also very common to say a friend/some friends + of + possessive pronouns.
  • I saw one of your friends last night.
    I saw a friend of yours last night.
Both of these sentences are correct and both common in English.

Yours faithfully - Yours sincerely
Yours is also used in English with faithfully or sincerely at the end of a formal letter or e-mail. The two common expressions are:
  • Yours faithfully (If it someone that you don't know)
  • Yours sincerely (If it is someone that you know)

Possessive Adjectives


Possessive Adjectives
English Grammar Rules
Possessive adjectives are used to show possession or ownership of something. While we use them when we refer to people, it is more in the sense of relationship than ownership.
The possessive adjectives in English are as follows:
Subject
Possessive
Adjective
I
My
You
Your
He
His
She
Her
It
Its
We
Our
You (pl)
Your
They
Their













The possessive adjective needs to agree with the possessor and not with the thing that is possessed.
Examples
  • My car is very old.
  • Her boyfriend is very friendly.
  • Our dog is black.
  • Their homework is on the table.
Like all adjectives in English, they are always located directly in front of the noun they refer to. (Possessive Adjective + Noun)
We do not include an S to the adjective when the noun is plural like in many other languages.
Examples:
  • Our cars are expensive. (Correct)
    Ours cars are expensive. (Incorrect)
However, the verb that is used needs to be in agreement with the noun - if the noun is singular then the verb is singular; if the noun is plural then the verb is plural.
Examples:
  • My pen is black. (Singular)
    My pens are black. (Plural)
  • Our child is intelligent. (Singular)
    Our children are intelligent. (Plural)

Its vs. It's
Be careful not to confuse its and it's.
Its = The possessive adjective for It.
It's = a contraction of it is.